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Judul:Zhou Youguang (Chinese: 周有光; pinyin: Zhōu Yǒuguāng; ) died
Durasi:1 mnt 13 dtk
Dipublikasikan:14 Januari 2017
Di Upload Oleh:world news

Zhou Youguang (Chinese: 周有光; pinyin: Zhōu Yǒuguāng; 13 January 1906 – 14 January 2017) was a Chinese economist, banker, linguist, sinologist, and supercentenarian, known as the "father of Pinyin",[1][2] a system for romanization of Mandarin Chinese which was officially adopted by the Chinese government in 1958, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982, and the United Nations in 1986

Zhou was born as Zhou Yaoping in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, on 13 January 1906.[1][4] At the age of ten, he and his family moved to Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1918, he entered Changzhou High School, during which time he first took interest in linguistics. He graduated in 1923 with honours.[5]

Zhou enrolled the same year in St. John's University, Shanghai where he majored in economics and took supplementary coursework in linguistics.[4] He almost was not able to attend: due to his family's poverty, they could only afford for him to attend a less prestigious university. However, his friends and relatives fundraised 200 yuan for the admission fee, and also helped him pay for tuition.[5] He left during the May Thirtieth Movement of 1925 and transferred to Guanghua University, from which he graduated in 1927.[4]

On 30 April 1933, Zhou married Zhang Yunhe (張允和), and the couple went to Japan for Zhou's studies.[4] Zhou first was an exchange student at the University of Tokyo, later transferring to Kyoto University due to his admiration of the Japanese Marxist economist Hajime Kawakami, who was a professor there at the time. However, after Kawakami's arrest because he joined the outlawed Japanese Communist Party in January 1933, Zhou never got the chance to be his student. On 30 April 1934, Zhou Youguang and Zhang Yun celebrated the first anniversary of their marriage, and also that year their son, Zhou Xiaoping (周曉平), was born. The birth of their son was followed on its heels by the birth of a daughter, Zhou Xiaohe (周小禾).[5]

In 1937, due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Zhou and his family returned to Shanghai, where he worked for a time at Sin Hua Bank before entering public service as a deputy director at the National Government Ministry of Economic Affairs Bureau, Chongqing Office (國民政府經濟部農本局任重慶辦事). After the 1945 Japanese defeat in World War II, Zhou went back to work for Sin Hua where he was stationed overseas: first in New York, and then London. During his time in the United States, he twice met Albert Einstein.[4]

He participated for a time in the China Democratic National Construction Association, but in 1949 returned to Shanghai[4] when the People's Republic was established

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